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14.12.2020 Britti domenico

Metrics details. Osteoarthritis OA is a common progressive joint disease in dogs and cats. The goal of OA treatment is to reduce inflammation, minimize pain, and maintain joint function.

Currently, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs e. Palmitoylethanolamide PEA is a naturally-occurring fatty acid amide, locally produced on demand by tissues in response to stress. PEA endogenous levels change during inflammatory and painful conditions, including OA, i.

Systemic treatment with PEA has anti-inflammatory and pain-relieving effects in several disorders, yet data are lacking in OA. Here we tested a new composite, i. Oral treatment with meloxicam was used as benchmark. PEA-Q decreased inflammatory and hyperalgesic responses induced by carrageenan injection, as shown by: i paw oedema reduction, ii decreased severity in histological inflammatory score, iii reduced activity of myeloperoxidase, i.

Overall PEA-Q showed superior effects compared to meloxicam. In MIA-treated animals, PEA-Q exerted the following effects: i reduced mechanical allodynia and improved locomotor function, ii protected cartilage against MIA-induced histological damage, and iii counteracted the increased serum concentration of tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin 1 beta, metalloproteases 1, 3, 9 and nerve growth factor.

The magnitude of these effects was comparable to, or even greater than, those of meloxicam. The present findings shed new light on some of the inflammatory and nociceptive pathways and mediators targeted by PEA-Q and confirm its anti-inflammatory and pain-relieving effects in rodent OA pain models. The translatability of these observations to canine and feline OA pain is currently under investigation.

Osteoarthritis OA represents one of the most frequently occurring painful conditions in both humans and small animals [ 1 ]. Clinical signs i. Despite their widespread use, the main drawbacks of NSAIDs relate to both poor efficacy against the neuropathic component of OA pain [ 5 ] and unwanted side effects, especially with long-term use [ 6 ].

Oleuropein an Olive Oil Compound in Acute and Chronic Inflammation Models: Facts and Perspectives

Thus, research is now focused on the identification of more effective and safe analgesic tools, as part of an ideal multimodal management of pain in veterinary OA patients [ 47 ]. Given the aetiological and clinical heterogeneity of canine and feline OA, several animal models have been employed to investigate the multifaceted mechanisms of OA pain and to evaluate the analgesic efficacy of different compounds [ 89 ].

Experimental OA pain models that provide ease of induction and reproducibility without the need for surgery are favored [ 9 ]. Of these, subplantar carrageenan CAR injection is recognized as a model of acute and highly reproducible inflammatory pain [ 1011 ], the main signs of inflammation - oedema, hyperalgesia, and erythema — developing immediately following subcutaneous injection.

Neutrophils readily migrate to sites of CAR-induced inflammation and generate pro-inflammatory mediators, such as bradykinin, histamine, and reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, with consequent sensitization of local nociceptors and inflammatory pain development [ 11 ]. Recently, the intra-articular injection of sodium monoiodoacetate MIA has been suggested to be more predictive of OA pain drug efficacy than other models [ 89 ]. MIA inhibits a key glycolytic enzyme, leading to chondrocyte cell death and bone lesions [ 9 ].

Pain-related characteristics in the MIA model are considered to originate from an inflammatory pain state induced by the local increase of inflammatory cytokines, followed by gradual initiation of neuronal cell injury and nerve sensitization, culminating in neuropathic pain [ 912 ].

Palmitoylethanolamide PEA is a naturally-occurring N-acylethanolamine and a congener of the endocannabinoid anandamide [ 13 ]. First discovered in the s as the active anti-inflammatory component of some food sources recently reviewed in [ 14 ]PEA has emerged as a disease-modifying agent in conditions eliciting both inflammatory and neuropathic pain, both in experimental e. Moreover, PEA is currently considered a negative regulator of tissue inflammation [ 1416 ]. However, its effect on joint disease-related pain remains to be fully investigated.

Available data are mainly limited to changes in endogenous levels of PEA, with an increase being reported in the spinal cord of MIA-treated rats [ 17 ] and a marked decrease in the synovial fluid of human patients with OA or rheumatoid arthritis [ 18 ]. These findings posit that PEA metabolism is deregulated during joint disorders and that exogenous supply of PEA may be beneficial in such conditions [ 19 ].

Oxidative stress is considered to be an important etiologic factor in OA [ 20 ], and the antioxidant quercetin has been used with success as an adjunct in human and experimental arthritic diseases [ 2122 ]. New formulations of PEA have recently been introduced in the Italian and international health market, both in the human and veterinary fields [ 14 ]. These mainly comprise micronized or ultramicronized formulations of PEA i. In some formulations, PEA is micronized or ultramicronized together with natural polyphenols, showing a synergistic effect and the ability to target also the oxidative stress cascade [ 14 ].Once production of your article has started, you can track the status of your article via Track Your Accepted Article.

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Launch Research Feed. Share This Paper. Figures from this paper. Citations Publications citing this paper. References Publications referenced by this paper. Acute doxorubicin cardiotoxicity is successfully treated with the phytochemical oleuropein through suppression of oxidative and nitrosative stress.

Kremastinos Chemistry, Medicine Journal of molecular and cellular cardiology Interleukin-1 enhances the development of type II collagen-induced arthritis only in susceptible and not in resistant mice.

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J T HomHarold L. ColeThomas B. EstridgeV. Gliszczynski Biology, Medicine Clinical immunology and immunopathology Redox signalling and the inflammatory response in rheumatoid arthritis. Salvatore CuzzocreaDennis P. Health and sensory properties of virgin olive oil hydrophilic phenols: agronomic and technological aspects of production that affect their occurrence in the oil.

A To browse Academia. Skip to main content. Log In Sign Up. Add Social Profiles Facebook, Twitter, etc. Domenico Britti. Unfollow Follow Unblock. Other Affiliations:. An unusual pedestrian road trauma: From forensic pathology to forensic veterinary medicine more.

Traffic accidents have increased in the last decade, pedestrians being the most affected group. At autopsy, it is evident that the most common cause of pedestrian death is central nervous system injury, followed by skull base fractures, At autopsy, it is evident that the most common cause of pedestrian death is central nervous system injury, followed by skull base fractures, internal bleeding, lower limb haemorrhage, skull vault fractures, cervical spinal cord injury and airway compromise.

The attribution of accident responsibility can be realised through reconstruction of road accident dynamics, investigation of the scene, survey of the vehicle involved and examination of the victim s.

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A case study concerning a car accident where both humans and pets were involved is reported here. Investigation and reconstruction of the crime scene were conducted by a team consisting of forensic pathologists and forensic veterinarians. At the scene investigation, the pedestrian and his dog were recovered on the side of the road. An autopsy and a necropsy were conducted on the man and the dog, respectively.

In addition, a complete inspection of the sports utility vehicle SUV implicated in the road accident was conducted. The results of the autopsy and necropsy were compared and the information was used to reconstruct the collision.

This unusual case was solved through the collaboration between forensic pathology and veterinary forensic medicine, emphasising the importance of this kind of co-operation to solve a crime scene concerning both humans and animals.

Save to Library. A 13 mer LNA-i-miR inhibitor restores drug-sensitivity in melphalan-refractory multiple myeloma cells more.

The onset of drug-resistance is a major cause of treatment failure in multiple myeloma MM.It has been related to a multitude of roles including virus infection, replication, dissemination and immune response stimulation. In the present study, we employed an immunoinformatic approach to investigate the major immunogenic domains of the SARS-CoV-2 envelope protein and map them among the homologue proteins of coronaviruses with tropism for animal species that are closely inter-related with the human beings population all over the world.

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Envelope sequences alignment provides evidence of high sequence homology for some of the investigated virus specimens; while the structural mapping of epitopes resulted in the interesting maintenance of the structural folding and epitope sequence localization also in the envelope proteins scoring a lower alignment score. In line with the One-Health approach, our evidences provide a molecular structural rationale for a potential role of taxonomically related coronaviruses in conferring protection from SARS-CoV-2 infection and identifying potential candidates for the development of diagnostic tools and prophylactic-oriented strategies.

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Additional Learning Centers. Services and Support. Thermo Fisher Scientific Inc. Determination of Lactose in Dairy Products. GIE L. Detlef Jensen.Background: Osteoarthritis OA is a common progressive joint disease in dogs and cats. The goal of OA treatment is to reduce inflammation, minimize pain, and maintain joint function.

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Currently, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs e. Palmitoylethanolamide PEA is a naturally-occurring fatty acid amide, locally produced on demand by tissues in response to stress. PEA endogenous levels change during inflammatory and painful conditions, including OA, i.

Systemic treatment with PEA has anti-inflammatory and pain-relieving effects in several disorders, yet data are lacking in OA. Here we tested a new composite, i. Oral treatment with meloxicam was used as benchmark. Results: PEA-Q decreased inflammatory and hyperalgesic responses induced by carrageenan injection, as shown by: i paw oedema reduction, ii decreased severity in histological inflammatory score, iii reduced activity of myeloperoxidase, i.

Overall PEA-Q showed superior effects compared to meloxicam. In MIA-treated animals, PEA-Q exerted the following effects: i reduced mechanical allodynia and improved locomotor function, ii protected cartilage against MIA-induced histological damage, and iii counteracted the increased serum concentration of tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin 1 beta, metalloproteases 1, 3, 9 and nerve growth factor.

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The magnitude of these effects was comparable to, or even greater than, those of meloxicam. Conclusion: The present findings shed new light on some of the inflammatory and nociceptive pathways and mediators targeted by PEA-Q and confirm its anti-inflammatory and pain-relieving effects in rodent OA pain models.

The translatability of these observations to canine and feline OA pain is currently under investigation. Abstract Background: Osteoarthritis OA is a common progressive joint disease in dogs and cats.


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